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1. Abolitionist: a person who advocates getting rid (abolition) of slavery
2. Activism: action taken to bring about social change and reform
3. Advocate: someone that supports or promotes the interests of another person or group of people
4. Ancestor: a person from whom one is descended; preceding generations
5. Artisan: a person trained in a skill or trade
6. Assimilate: to adapt to the customs, attitudes, etc., of a group or nation; match your culture to the one you are living in
7. Bias: a distorted or one-sided view
8. Civil Rights: the rights that are guaranteed by the Constitution to all people as citizens, especially equal treatment under the law
9. Cultural Diffusion: the spread of ideas, technology, religion, and language
10. Declaration of Sentiments: a formal statement of injustices or grievances suffered by women, written by the organizers of the Seneca Falls Convention
11. De-institutionalization: the policy of moving severely mentally ill people out of large state hospitals and then closing part or all of those hospitals
12. Discrimination: unequal treatment based on a person’s race, gender, religion, place of birth, etc…
13. Diversity: being different; it can be different people and cultures, economic activities, etc.
14. Emancipation: the act of freeing people from slavery
15. Enfranchise: give the right to vote to someone
16. Enlighten: Give someone greater knowledge and understanding about a subject or situation, or give them spiritual knowledge or insight.
17. Ethics: the principles of conduct (behavior) governing an individual or a group; dealing with what is good and bad in society
18. Famine: severe lack of food in an entire region or area
19. Feminist: a person who advocates for social, economic, and political equality for women
20. Haven: a safe place
21. Heritage: the traditional beliefs, values, and customs of a family or country
22. Hostile: unfriendly, aggressive, or combative
23. Illiterate: unable to read or write
24. Immigrant: someone who moves from one country or another, usually for political, economic, or social reasons
25. Industrial Revolution: a major shift in economic activity in the 1800’s where machines and factories replaced hand tools and artisans
26. Industrialization: the large-scale introduction of manufacturing, advanced technical enterprises, and other productive economic activity into an area, society, country, etc.
27. Manufacture: to make raw materials and resources into finished and usable products
28. Mass Production: the use of interchangeable parts and assembly lines to make large quantities of goods for less money
29. Migration Patterns: routes of movement for animals and people across a given area or countries
30. Nativism: an attitude of superiority and resentment towards immigrants and foreign people
31. Posterity: all future generations
32. Public education: schools and instruction supported and run by the government
33. Push Factors: things that make a person want to leave their home country; things that push people out of their homeland
34. Pull Factors: things that make a person want to go to a new country; things that pull people toward a new land
35. Reform: to improve conditions; changing something that is wrong, corrupt, bad, etc
36. Reformers: people who work to correct injustices or improve conditions of others
37. Repressive: being overbearing or controlling
38. Revival: a reawakening of faith or renewal of commitment to religion; an evangelistic meeting or service intended to effect such a reawakening in those present
39. Second Great Awakening: A revival of religious feeling and belief in the 1820’s and 1830’s that led to reforms in society
40. Standard of living: the level of material comfort as measured by the goods, services, and luxuries available to an individual, group, or nation.
41. Suffrage: the right to vote
42. Temperance: moderation in or abstaining (staying away) from the use of alcoholic beverages
43. Tenement: a house divided into and rented out as separate residences, especially one that is run-down and overcrowded.
44. Tolerance: sympathy or acceptance of beliefs or practices differing from or conflicting with one's own
45. Transcendentalism: a philosophy that taught people to ‘transcend’ (go beyond) logical thinking to reach true understanding with the help of emotion and intuition
46. Tutor: to teach or instruct someone
47. Urbanization: the growth of cities